Agrandir Original jpeg, 28k Source: Author 13There is a plethora of signs in these images that could generate heated discussions about and interpretations around the impact of American culture on Moroccan cultural production. As they speak about the cultural burden of globalization, they would from time to time make references to young people dressed in American fashion, flag designs and city names patched up all over their clothes, posturing in ways unfamiliar to the common Moroccan man or woman, speaking a language that knows the constant interventions of code switching to and borrowing from American words they have memorized from the many American songs with which their brains are saturated, their hairdos similar to what we see on TV or the net, typically reminiscent of the subcultural belligerent young people of the west. This cheek-tongued description hopes to provide a sarcastic rendition of the cultural imperialism thesis, which is a lot of times shored up by quite a handful of arguments. But although such arguments are persuasive, they supply only one singular shot of a multifarious set of circumstances.
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Agrandir Original jpeg, 28k Source: Author 13There is a plethora of signs in these images that could generate heated discussions about and interpretations around the impact of American culture on Moroccan cultural production. As they speak about the cultural burden of globalization, they would from time to time make references to young people dressed in American fashion, flag designs and city names patched up all over their clothes, posturing in ways unfamiliar to the common Moroccan man or woman, speaking a language that knows the constant interventions of code switching to and borrowing from American words they have memorized from the many American songs with which their brains are saturated, their hairdos similar to what we see on TV or the net, typically reminiscent of the subcultural belligerent young people of the west.
This cheek-tongued description hopes to provide a sarcastic rendition of the cultural imperialism thesis, which is a lot of times shored up by quite a handful of arguments. But although such arguments are persuasive, they supply only one singular shot of a multifarious set of circumstances. It does not account for the whole aspects of the picture, as it were, about popular culture, festivals and music in Morocco.
We can trace the presence of American trends almost everywhere in the world. But should this be enough reason to be globophobic or Americophobic? Culture cannot be replaced, substituted, changed, put off and on like T-shirts.
Even within a country like Morocco we cannot speak about cultural homogeneity, as the different existing regions and ethnicities still uphold and maintain their cultural specificities.
There exists unevenness in cultural consumption as these artefacts are not consumed passively. The regulation of cultural consumption. Essaouira and Fez festivals , while creating opportunities for exporting these as local products through global media companies. Again, most of these festivals engage in different forms of commercialization via sponsors, seeking of global media partners, and selling of tickets and passes, etc.
Photo 2. This T-shirts and many others amassed from festival markets are scarce if not out of stock outside the festival, because their producers are always in the lookout for new designs and messages that fit in the current discussions and debates on the cultural, social and political fronts. The T-shirt derives its creativity from wordplay, which therefore becomes its central message.
These commodities need to meet the creative expectation of a highly creative audience. These two places are not even geographically speaking on the map, as one is a country, the other a city. But beyond the humorous effect of the logo, which communicates a more-too-often sense of pride particularly known to Casablancans, for whom the city, given their hyperbolic sense of metropolitan patriotism, encloses the global magnitude and value of a country such Canada this explains the division that renders Casa detachable into a prefix and suffix , the T-shirt transmits an awareness of the heterogeneity of the metropolitan city of Casablanca, artfully printed on a T-shirt to be sold in a local festival for music.
These teasing and mocking signs especially target the cultural imperialism and westernization hypotheses, increasingly and largely adopted and circulated, especially after the syndrome of amplification of the sense of national identity at the wake of the Mena uprisings in World Nomadictates vs. The west as an idea traded across local markets through music and fashion might represent precious opportunities for local cultural economy to thrive and become richer with the time.
Given that Morocco lies a few kilometers away from Europe, there is no way imaginable to stop cultural artifacts from travelling into the country. Immigration is one of the aspects of Globalization, and we would concur that it has a lot of growing impact on countries like Spain, France and Belgium where whole neighborhoods are packed up with eastern goods and languages and populations.
We might want to call both flows world nomadictates nomadic dictates , as they keep on moving all the time across places, leaving traces, as nomads do, of their presence, without necessarily changing the place or symbolically plaguing it. Yet, they are dictates because they speak their presence aloud, loud enough that we confuse that loudness with an attempt to imperialize.
As we are not interested to invite industrial economy to the current discussion as the theoretical orientations of our topic do not allow, our concern is mainly to persist at the debate on cultural capital.
However, as economists believe, market competition is always on the rise. We might be inclined to see cultural industries, those that produce and trade in culture, as competitive market managers with competent marketers, each one trying to sell more to generate more income.
This results in a boom of cultural artifacts filling the cultural market without these artifacts claiming universality.
We have no statistics as to who sells best, who will thrive, for a how long and where etc, but we know that countries like Japan and China eastern of course have lots of shares in the whole game of cultural distribution. Hesmondhalgh addresses three aspects of internationalization: the internationalization of cultural businesses, the internationalization of cultural texts, and the increasing impact of the global on the local.
The first aspect consults the role of transnational businesses and explains how transnational corporations get based in more than one country under companies with no nationality, but with profit that returns to the core country. Hesmondhalgh argues for a shift in thinking about culture as related to territory. Internationalism risks holding up a unifying stance towards other cultures.
Anti-globalization enthusiasts match globalization with the homogenization of goods, which is thought of as one end product of globalization, though we argue that this thesis is frustrated and cancelled out in point of fact by studies focusing on the social and cultural level.
However, if our aim is to avoid the problems that come with the word globalization 7 , we might want to avoid talking about internationalization as well for five of reasons: Colonization regimes and colonizers have often tried to sell the myth of universality and internationalization of goods knowledge, civilization, western education, prosperity to the colonized, and therefore these are terms which are very close to the concept of cultural imperialism.
We can still be persuaded to think that internationalization is the same as globalization because of problems of nomination. However, this assumption overlooks non-western forms of circulation, whereby North African migration is changing the social, linguistic, cultural visual and even culinary life in many western countries.
Egyptian cinema and music. Yet the urban scene in Morocco is associated less with non-western influence, more with western circulation. While dominant countries can afford to be international, other non-dominant countries do not own the necessary and sufficient power and machinery to go international.
This reminds us of visa issues. They oblige for a short while, and move on. World nomadic circulation of goods and individuals is not associated with cultural imperialism, since these goods and individuals are confined by their rhetorical marginalization, because they only make it to and have influence on some group sections and places.
Yet, in other interviews with Moroccan singers Mohamed El Ghawi and Said Moskir in , they both describe the hip hop scene in Morocco as a wave which will ultimately be followed and replaced by other waves.
Tsunami or wave, these artistic forms are marked by travel and transience. They can still be said within our discussion on the travelling of cultural commodities to be possessors of marginal mobilities typically associated with nomadic travelers. They also function within the logic of disability. Trans-cultural Pluralism: Essaouira as a Case in Point 22Essaouira is the melting pot for the encounters with and intersection of world music in a postmodern postcolonial Morocco.
World music becomes only a phenomenon of a brimful city. Essaouira as a world city now lives on as the site of sustained encounter, an urban slate that bears the zigzagging writings of world travelers and world music.
Music is marked by mobility. Connell and Gibson argue that Music, like all forms of sound, is inherently mobile, and that recordings themselves move as objects—as treasured artefacts of lives and places, traded through migrant links across countries, underpinning musical economies or sustaining diasporic connections Connell et Gibson, : Mobility, as they come to understand it, engenders a sense of dynamism in time and space, a heightened sense of transformation most evident in the contemporary era.
It is, among other things, local music performed trans-locally, and back. Its coincidences and irregular fusions are postcolonial. If you stride alert enough in the streets, corners and border lines of the city, you will come across tuneful testimonies collected from the four corners of the earth. Young amateurish street musicians try to promote themselves, equipped with their own homemade instruments; they are at times professionals sharing music at a remove from the official stages of the event, in the marginal yet central theatres of the urban space; Moreover, they have the facility and willingness to get a feel for what performance in a multicultural city involves.
The important point to make is not that these Afro-western performers are both global and local performers, but they relatively contribute to the blurring of the disparity between the two, and, at the same time, maintain the claim of an illusion that what they are playing something authentic, something which is not incongruous with the character of the city.
Such authenticity, as Connell, and Gibson discuss it, is in part constructed by attempts to embed music in place I asked Dj Joseph, an anthropologist, teacher and artist, in a personal interview, about what he thinks of the Essaouira festival as a commoditized space for encounter.
For Joseph this difficulty can be attributed to the element of seclusion like-minded people at times suffer from. The entire city, excited about economic and cultural possibilities, participates in this free-of-charge festival attended by people from every corner of the world, and made possible through Moroccan and international sponsorship.
A striking contradiction, conversely, creeps around in the music rituals of interaction that produce world cultural nomadictates locally. Far from sharing a mosaic platform of music by means of our interaction with it, we practice it in diverse worlds, which, one after another are produced in typically diverse ways due to economic, cultural and racial, political and historical inequalities.
The festival, now fabricated as a 21st century technology to make it possible for nations to consume other nations under the brand name of globalization, makes one wonder whether the festival, as a world technology, eases or confuses interaction.
There is no more an unattainably out-of-the-way cultural sphere of the festival than there are trans-cultural spheres. By mapping and remapping this mostly unfamiliar terrain of the festival, cultural stage managers can afford new formulations of power, knowledge, and loyalty to the transcultural services at offer.
As the festival of Gnawa music indelibly marks the city, whether during the time of the festival or outside it, the city becomes unthinkable far from the event that has given it the aura it has today.
Their identities both festival and city get united in the trans local imaginary. Conclusion 27To conclude it is of note to re-emphasize that nomadism stipulates constant relocation into non-constant elsewhere. It is grounded on a turtle logic which is advocated by the understanding that a dwelling is not so much in the place where one digs a tent as in the distance that one crosses after the undigging.
That is to say, nomads take issue with the culture of belonging, that we own a place or that a place defines us which entails a great deal of violence as in tying something up against, pinning someone down to a stable resolute territory.
Nomadism defies any potential purpose to seek resolution or completion that would lead to a compromise of movement, to the arrangement of a possible home, or marking a signature on a contract of settlement.
While the former has been subject internationally to the tyranny of borders, whereby movement is regulated by bureaucratically systematic work incongruous with the structural philosophy of nomadic culture, the latter can hardly be immobilized or put out of action by customs or border guards. This explains why flow of culture across borders is determined by other factors such as utility the extent to which a foreign cultural text could be functional in the host culture , suitability the possible chances that a foreign cultural text could fit, with much rightness and appropriateness, into the textual body of the host culture , dominance the amount of authority with which a cultural text travels and survives in a foreign culture, and proximity the nearness in form and geography to the host culture that renders reception uncomplicated.
In either way, home and away cultures generate a state of diversity while making the most of the available technology to continue to be adapted and adopted and to ensure further movement. For instance we cannot rightly speak about a pure Moroccanization of sub Saharan Gnawa music nor the opposite as both had to adopt and get adapted to one another, which renders the existing thesis of cultural effacement or substitution an implausibly fantastic comprehension.
However this authoritativeness the fact that a cultural text can penetrate a new culture and survive in it is undermined by the very action of movement, from the idea of relinquishment of and movement away from local abode.
This is entirely understood in the case of the double-case mobility of sub-Saharan Africans into Morocco, developing midway what has been recognized as a Gnawa culture, followed by a third movement elsewhere, producing new combinations, collaborations, fusions, and therefore ulterior selves.
This requires repositioning themselves with the endeavor to accept marginality limited centrality as they will be reassessed reassessing themselves to comply the new environment regulations of transit. Therefore mobility of world cultural dictates institute new recompositions of self that cannot stay whole all the way, in all directions and passageways. Nomadictates flow at their own risk of identity transformation, yet still lay a wager on replenishing themselves in new territories, renewing emphasis on themselves in the course of establishing visibility on diverse sites.
Nomadictates, nevertheless, are not embedded in an urgent need to repeat themselves across time and space, but see themselves through other compositions, divisions, recreations. How can we thus speak of westernization of Gnawa music without risking to leave without any agency? Cultural artifacts wield power through their openness to pluralism and multiple options of being, instead of operating within the globalization and cultural imperialism theses which impose a sense of uniformity in response to local or foreign pressures.
In the case of Gnawa culture, its operation within and interaction with other cultural specificities accentuated its awareness of its identity. Circular itinerary of marginal cultural artifacts and individuals or groups maximized their transformation into nomadictates. Haut de page Bibliographie Abu-Lughod, L. Sanders dir. Barry, A.
Don eds, Belghazi, T. Bell, D. Science, Technology and Culture. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Brennan, T. Globalization and Its Terrors, London, Routledge.
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